Parts Of The Mushroom | Parts Of The Mushroom And Their Functions | Structure Of Mushroom
Parts Of The Mushroom
Organizing the Fungisphere
- This field guide organizes mushrooms from simple and familiar to more difficult and exotic.
- Most foragers are familiar with morels and puffballs, either from their own foraging or as food gifts from friends, so they are listed first.
- There are a few pitfalls when searching for these mushrooms, and I will help you over them. Next up are the pored and toothed mushrooms that produce and disperse spores from pores, spines, or teeth; many are relatively easy to identify and rewarding culinary finds.
- Pores and teeth give way to an intermediate group— the chanterelles, mushrooms possessing the precursor of gills in the form of folded flesh, gill-like, but not gills.
- Here are some of the best-tasting fungi available on the planet. Not to be upstaged are the gilled mushrooms.
- This vast group with so many look-alikes requires rigorous identification and cautious respect.
- They are potentially the most dangerous mushrooms and some of the most beneficial.
- The final two chapters cover commercially available medicinal mushrooms and poisonous mushrooms.
- There are two main parts to a mushroom fungus; An above-ground fruiting body or sporophore and the underground mycelium.
- Mycelium forms the underground part of the fungus that we seldom see.
- It’s a vast, complex network of cells that form thin fibers, like plant roots, and spread under the forest floor in search of nutrients.
- When a mushroom spore lands in a spot with ideal growing conditions, it germinates. Producing thread-like filaments called hyphae that grow, interconnect and form mycelium.
- Extensive networks of mycelium spread over large distances underground and connect fungi to each other.
- Mushrooms don’t have chlorophyll like plants for food production. Instead, the mycelium grows by absorbing nutrients from dead and decaying organic matter.
- Mycelium lives for many years and may remain dormant for several seasons until conditions are perfect for fruiting.
- The umbrella-shaped body of a mushroom that we recognize is the fruit of a much larger underground fungus.
- They’re called fruiting bodies or sporophores and are the fleshy, sometimes edible, part of the fungus.
- The fruiting body usually grows above the ground or on the surface of a host. Its purpose is to produce and distribute spores so the fungus can reproduce.
- The cap of the mushroom is the topmost part and gives the fungi its umbrella-like shape. It can be flat, conical or spherical and have a wide range of textures and colors.
- The caps’ color and texture don’t only vary by species. They also change depending on the stage of development of the mushroom.
- The shape of the cap also changes throughout the development of the mushroom.
- The cap contains the spore-producing surface of the mushroom, made up of gills, pores or teeth.
- The function of the cap is to protect the spore-producing surface. It does this in the same way that an umbrella would protect you from rain or the heat of the sun.
|Cap Of Mushroom|
- The gills are thin, paper-like structures layered side by side that often hang from the underside of the cap.
- Gills come in various colors and have distinct features, making them useful for species identification.
- The shape of the individual gills, their color and how far apart they are from each other all play a role.
- How and where they attach to the stem is also important for mushroom identification.
- Not all mushrooms have gills. Some, like porcinis, have pores. These are tiny, tightly packed tubes that resemble a sponge.
- Others, like lion’s mane, have teeth or needles instead of gills.
- The function of the gills, called lamellae, is to produce and disperse billions of spores.
|Gills Of Mushroom|
- Mushroom spores are microscopic, unicellular reproductive cells produced in the gills.
- Most spores are shades of white, brown, pink or black, but there are also some mushrooms with orange, green and yellow spores.
- Some scientists use the color, size and shape of spores to identify fungi.
- A mushroom spore is like a seed in that it contains all the genetic material required to grow new mushrooms.
- At the end of the mushroom growth cycle, mushrooms release their spores. Wind, water, animals or humans then disperse them.
- The spores need to land in a warm, moist, shaded area to germinate.
|Spores Of Mushroom|
- A ring of tissue is sometimes found on a mushroom stem. It’s the remaining part of a partial veil.
- A partial veil is a thin piece of tissue that provides an extra layer of protection for the gills when the mushroom is young.
- As the mushroom matures and the cap grows, it ruptures the partial veil exposing the gills. Sometimes the remnants of the veil form a ring of tissue around the stem.
- Rings vary considerably and may be thick and prominent or thin and cobweb-like.
- People use the ring type, position and shape for the identification and classification of mushrooms.
|Ring Of The Mushroom|
- The stem or stipe supports the cap and elevates it above the ground.
- The function of a stem is to assist with the dispersal of the spores. In the wild, many mushrooms use the wind or animals to scatter their spores.
- Thus, the cap and gills need to be high enough from the ground for the mushroom to effectively release its spores into the wind or onto passing animals.
- The size, shape and texture of the stem play a role in identifying mushrooms.
- Some mushrooms have no stems at all. While others, like oyster mushrooms, have gills that extend down the sides of the stem.
|Stem Of Mushroom|
- The volva or universal veil is a layer of tissue that protects the immature mushrooms of some species as they grow out of the ground.
- As the mushroom matures, it breaks through the universal veil, leaving the bottom part of the veil at the base of the stalk.
- The remnants create a cup-like shape at the stem’s base. The volva is very important when identifying mushrooms in the wild.
- A volva is a significant feature of mushrooms in the Amanitaceae family, many of which are very poisonous.
|Volva Of Mushroom|
- The hyphae are the microscopic,thread-like filaments or tubes that interconnect and grow to form the web-like mycelium or body of a fungus.
- The function of the hyphae is to absorb nutrients from the environment and transport them to other parts of the fungus.
|Hyphae Of Mushroom|
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